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Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early state of the disease in which symptoms will be mild or non-existent. In NPDR, the blood vessels in the retina are weakened causing tiny bulges called microanuerysms to protrude from their walls.

© 2009 Eyemaginations, Inc. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the more advanced form of the disease. At this stage, new fragile blood vessels can begin to grow in the retina and into the vitreous, the gel-like fluid that fills the back of the eye. The new blood vessel may leak blood into the vitreous, clouding vision.

Diabetic retinopathy results from the damage diabetes causes to the small blood vessels located in the retina. These damaged blood vessels can cause vision loss:

Diabetic retinopathy is classified into two types:

Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Other complications of PDR include detachment of the retina due to scar tissue formation and the development of glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disease in which there is progressive damage to the optic nerve. In PDR, new blood vessels grow into the area of the eye that drains fluid from the eye. This greatly raises the eye pressure, which damages the optic nerve. If left untreated, PDR can cause severe vision loss and even blindness. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include:

Diabetes. Medical conditions. Pregnancy.

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Diabetic retinopathy can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination . Testing, with emphasis on evaluating the retina and macula, may include:

Patient history Visual acuity measurements Refraction Evaluation of the ocular structures, including the evaluation of the retina Measurement of the pressure

Supplemental testing may include:

Retinal photography Fluorescein angiography
© 2009 Eyemaginations, Inc. Laser treatment (photocoagulation) is used to stop the leakage of blood and fluid into the retina. A laser beam of light can be used to create small burns in areas of the retina with abnormal blood vessels to try to seal the leaks.

Treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on the stage of the disease. The goal of any treatment is to slow or stop the progression of the disease. In the early stages of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, regular monitoring may be the only treatment. Following your doctor's advice for diet and exercise and controlling blood sugar levels can help control the progression of the disease. If the disease advances, the blood vessels can leak blood and fluid into the retina, leading to macular edema. Laser treatment (photocoagulation) can stop this leakage. A laser beam of light creates small burns in areas of the retina with abnormal blood vessels to try to seal the leaks. Widespread blood vessel growth in the retina, which occurs in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, can be treated by creating a pattern of scattered laser burns across the retina. This causes abnormal blood vessels to shrink and disappear. With this procedure, some side vision may be lost in order to safeguard central vision.

by Napier Lopez — in Microsoft

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It’s been a whirlwind week for Microsoft’s Project Andromeda, better known as the quasi-mythical Surface Phone. Just when a report from The Verge indicated Andromeda was a real product nearing an announcement, another one said it was likely to be shelved.

Now fans are fighting back. A petition titled “ Show Microsoft the demand for the Surface Phone or Andromeda ” was created by Zachary Hinski on At the time of writing, the petition has amassed about 1,800 signatures. That’s not too shabby considering the petition only went up 22 hours ago, and especially when you remember this isn’t even an officially confirmed product yet.

Though the title is fairly self-explanatory, the description of the petition makes the goal clear:

All the fans of windows phone want Microsoft to release the Surface Phone aka Surface Andromeda Phone Project that has been leaking out lately with the phone screen that can turn into a tablet. I’m doing this petition to see how many people would buy this phone if Microsoft would release it. Money is power and if a lot of people want a Surface phone like the ones in the leaks then they will be forced into action as everyone knows Microsoft wouldn’t be able to give a reason on why not to do it to there investors, as its too much of a money opportunity to miss. I myself wouldn’t mind paying between $799-$999 for this phone if it happened and looked like the pictures that we have seen from those leaks.

Considering back-and-forth leaks suggest Microsoft has been rather fickle on the project, perhaps Hinski is on to something. That said, the under $1,000 price might be asking for too much, considering Samsung’s Galaxy X – which is also a folding phone design – is expected to sell closer to $2,000 .

Still, signers are passionate. The reasons provided for signing have ranged from Windows Phone nostalgia, to a love of the Surface Brand, to a genuine belief Andromeda could be a game-changing product.

Whether this petition will gain further traction remains to be seen. And Microsoft listening is another matter entirely.As for me, I’ve made my stance clear in another article .

Long story short: I signed.

Show Microsoft the demand for the Surface Phone or Andromeda! on

Read next: Scientific publishing is rigged — at our expense



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Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, University of Zulia, Maracaibo 15165, Venezuela.

Department of Pharmacology, “JM Vargas” Medical School, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas 1050, Venezuela.

Advanced Frontier Studies Research Group (ALEF), Simón Bolívar University, Cúcuta 5827070, Colombia.

Correspondence Address:

Dr. María Sofía Martínez, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Zulia, Maracaibo 15165, Venezuela. E-mail:

Dr. María Sofía Martínez obtained the degree of Medical Surgeon, Magna Cum Laude, in the class of 2015, Honor Roll, of School of Medicine from The University of Zulia, one of the most important Universities in scientific production of Venezuela. She actually works for the Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Center from University of Zulia, Faculty of Medicine, as a Researcher co-leading projects related to Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases. She also worked as President of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Student Society during period 2016-2017.

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2017;1:116-28. | | © 2017 OAE Publishing Inc.
Received: 8 May 2017 | Accepted: 23 Jun 2017 | Published: 26 Sep 2017

This is an open access article licensed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Given the notorious impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the current leading cause of mortality worldwide, the prevention, identification and management of CV risk factors represents a priority in daily clinical practice. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on CV health. Their derivatives, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, intervene in multiple metabolic pathways, including: regulation of the inflammatory response, by reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines; regulation of platelet aggregation, activation and adhesion, by modulating thromboxane A2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity; regulation of the coagulation pathways, by reducing the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors; improvement of endothelial function, given their effects on prostaglandin synthesis and endothelial nitric oxide synthase; reduction of serum lipids, through their effects on the hepatic synthesis of triacylglycerides, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and lipoprotein catabolism; and improvement of myocardial function via their membrane-stabilizing effects, and an increase in fluidity, size and distribution of membrane lipid rafts. Nevertheless, these effects appear to vary according to the type of PUFA ingested, dietary sources, daily dosing and individual factors inherent to the subject. Therefore, further studies are required to determine the ideal supplementation for each kind of patient and their particular CV profiles.

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